Atheletos pathos. Trei tipuri de non-intenționalitate în „capetele (despre rugăciune) care au lipsit” [§§ 17-18] ale Sf. Calist Patriarhul (sec. al XIV-lea)
In his „Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phaenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy” (Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie) from 1913, Edmund Husserl situated in the middle of his phaenomenological thought concepts like „intentional experience” (intentionales Erlebnis) and „intentional consciousness” (intentionales Bewußtsein). Applying Husserlʼs principles of the phaenomenological thinking to ethics, Emanuel Levinas showed in the second part of the 20th century that the main character of a phaenomenologically treated moral philosophy is rather an „unintentional consciousness”, the self which makes a non- and pre-reflexive experience of the alterity. Although this phrase is not used in the tradition of the patristic thought, the Church Fathers described the phaenomenon of the „unintentional consciousness” especially in their ascetic writings. One of these Fathers is St. Kallistos (Calist), the Patriarch of Constantinople (probably not Kallistos I [1350-1354; 1355-1363], but Kallistos II Agelikudes/Melenikeotes/ Kataphygiotes ), who particularly in chapter [§§ 17-18] of the „Chapters about praying (which were missing)” describes what can be identified as three types of unintentional consciousness/unintentionality: a. a non-reflexive unintentionality, which though fails into a passional addiction (vita passibilis) that however leads nowhere; b. the unintentionality of the apatheia, a state in which passivity is totally missing; c. the post-reflexive unintentionality of the encounter with God, in which are experienced the divine presence and work as a personal pathos (vita passiva).