By re-reading the episode of the fall of Eden and the narration of Abraham’s call, this study aims to underline the characteristics of a nation called to holiness. In this sense, the descendants of Abraham are invited to become a royal priesthood and a holy people according to the prescriptions of the Lord at the time of the Theophany on the mount Sinai. In order to avoid any formalism or ethnical withdrawn, God propounds the Ten Commandments and the Code of Holiness. Behind prescriptions and prohibitions, there is depicted a biblical humanism that will be accomplished by the coming of Christ. Thus, according to I Pt. 2,9-10, henceforth the teaching on the „people of God” gains meaning and is fundamentally detached from any elitist or ethnic understanding.