In the Christian tradition, the problem of the status of the human embryo is raised for the first time by apologists of the second century. These authors are no longer satisfied with the mere moral condemnation of abortion and the exposure of newborns like Apostolic Fathers. Justin the Martyr and Athenagora perceive embryonic development as a whole and speak of a "presence of the whole" in the seed. They also present the problem of the human embryo in a theological framework. This framework is organized around three points: the incarnation/conception of Jesus Christ, the faith in the resurrection of the bodies and the ritual of baptism. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a theological framework in which the twenty-first century Christian believer can testify the true faith relating the current bioethical debates regarding the human embryo.